verbs and tenses - function - Global Approach 2016

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VERBS and TENSES: function


  • Understanding the tenses matrix:
    a) simple versus continuous (progressive) aspects - FOCUS
    b) referenced versus perfect aspects - PERSPECTIVE
  • Profile overview of perfect tenses usage
  • TWO-PAGE MAP SHOWING THE SYSTEMIC RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE TENSES (including modality­) This is an ESSENTIAL TOOL
  • Visual side-by-side ready reference comparisons of statement versus questions forms, active versus passive etc. (ESSENTIAL TOOL)
  • Tenses discrimination model (ESSENTIAL TOOL)
  • Practice exercises using the tenses discrimination model (with key)

  • Overview of modal usage: core concepts underlying the three notional groups:
    1) will, would;
    2) can, may, could, might;
    3) must, shall, should, ought to, needn’t . (ESSENTIAL TOOL)
  • BE ABLE (to) and HAVE (to) – underpinning modality
  • Will as a lexical verb
  • Guide to modal discrimination
  • Practice exercises using the guide to modals discrimination (with key)
  • Summary overview of functions associated with modals

  • Direct closed questions; practice exercises (including key)
  • Direct open questions (subject and object); practice exercises (including key)
  • Focus question words
  • Indirect (and reported) speech, including statements  and questions; practice exercises (including key)
  • Comparison between Germanic and Latinate expressions of modality in English
  • Ways of expressing the future (OVERVIEW using the TWO-PAGE MAP)
  • Time links in relation to the future
  • ‘Defective’ usage – USED to and BE GOING to
  • Reflexive usage in English

  • DISTANCING’ – the ‘backward’ and ‘downward’ shift, using the  TWO-PAGE MAP to express ‘FACT’ and ‘NOT-FACT’ (hypothesis, wishes and conditionals) - and ‘social distancing’
  • Using the TWO-PAGE MAP as a paint palette to communicate more subtle and nuanced perspective (including ‘past perfect’ usage)

  • Using the system to understand GERUND and INFINITIVE distinction
  • PASSIVE-INFINITIVE reporting
  • SUBJUNCTIVE usage
  • DIPLOMATIC English - drawing on the ‘backward’ and ‘downward’ shift, modality and indirectness, and ‘cushions’ (lexical softeners)
  • The multifunctional uses of present and past participles
  • Elliptical usage
  • Clarification of ‘USE’, USED to, and BE USED to
  • Single-page overview of the multifunctional uses of the different parts of the verb
 
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